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Cuisine Food Japan Restaurant

一合 御馳走屋 Ichi-Gou Gochisouya

Tash and I went to a restaurant in Nakatsu called Ichi-gou Gochisouya (一合御馳走屋) for the first time tonight. It’s in an old Japanese-style building close to downtown that used to hold an udon/soba noodle shop popular with local expats. Now, it’s an Izakaya, a kind of Japanese style tapas/gastro-pub sort of restaurant. “Ichi-gou” means “one gou” in Japanese. A “gou” is a unit of measure in Japanese that is a bit less than a cup, that is used for rice and sake. “Gochisouya” means feast or banquet place/restaurant.

We walked into this gorgeous Japanese space with an open kitchen. It seemed like there were more staff members working there than customers, so service, like always in Japan, was very prompt and attentive. We were also brought a small blackboard with the specials and recommendations of the week that supplemented the vast menu already on the table.

Apparently, our presence in the restaurant was funny or something.  Some of the chefs were giggling when we walked in and when we left.  Also, when I ordered a second round of food and drinks, the waitress asked us if we could read the menu.  hmm, um, I’ve already ordered once and I read the Japanese menu fine.  Why ask now?  Maybe it has to do with the fact that Natasha is a stereotypical blonde gaijin. One of the girls at the neighboring table made it a point to say “Hello! Hello! Hello!” in English to her girlfriends as she walked past us when she walked in late to join them. So who exactly was she saying hello to?  Not us, because it’s not like they she was trying to strike up a conversation with us or anything.  Maybe just showing off her English to her friends?  Who knows, but with 6 years of mandatory English at schools here, I would certainly hope that every Japanese person with a high school diploma can say at least “hello”.  Alas, gaijin still equals funny in rural Japan.

All this aside, let’s talk about food.  We ordered:

Ryuukyuu-tsuke (琉球漬):  Marinated sashimi pieces with slivers of daikon radish

Asatsuki to Toufu no Hanryuu Sarada (浅葱と豆腐の韓流サラダ): chive, red onion and tofu salad with a spicy Korean-style dressing

Watarigani no Koura-yaki (ワタリガニの甲羅焼): crab and squid meat topped with a Béchamel sauce and broiled gratin-style in the crab shell

Ebi no Tempura (エビの天婦羅):  classic tempura-style fried shrimp
And washed it all down with a couple of nama-biiru (draught beers).

mmm.  An excellent new discovery and a great way to celebrate the start of the weekend!

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Cooking Japan

Thai Food Cooking Night, My House, Nakatsu, May 2006

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Kokura, May 2006

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Declining Birthrates in Japan: Part 2

After everything I said in the previous post, I think we have to look at another fundamental question:  is a declining population necessarily a bad thing?  In the case of developped countries like Japan, maybe not.  

Afterall, Japan is only the size of Sweden or California in terms of landmass, but it has half the population of the United States.  For the most part, it is an advanced industrial country which means that it's population uses up a lot of natural resources.  Our economic models for development are already not environmentally sound.  Our planet can not bear the burden of more and more of the earth's population living Westernised, industrially developped lifestyles of consumption.  This is an environmental fact.  The earth has limited resources, so it is clearly environmentally irresponsible to tell people to have more babies.  Especially not people in advanced industrialized nations where the per capita consumption of natural resources is high.

That being said, there is no ethical basis in denying the "right" of human economic development to people in countries on the path of economic development.  We cannot simply say: there are not enough resources, so you can't develop economically.  Wasn't the promise of industrial capitalism to deliver us from scarcity with the promise of technology?

But industrial capitalism HAS eliminated scarcity in developped countries.  It has in fact done too well.  Through marketing and the vicious cycle of "trends" and "fashion," scarcity and want are "manufactured" as well.  We must have more, consume more.  Support more industry.  This is industry for for it's own sake and for the sake of capitalism, not for the people's sake.
Yet there are parts of the developping world where industrial development has not yet made the significant inroads to improve the standard of living.  For the less fortunate, the promise of technology has been a betrayal.  Technology, while it has improved the quality of life of millions, is still primarily in the service of capitalists to allow them to make more money.  

Thus the only solution, given limited resources is to have fewer people.  Ethically, we are compelled to spread the wealth, but the only way for that redistribution to be environmentally viable is to have few people around to spread the wealth too.

On the political and cultural front however, an aging population also means a natural tendancy towards conservatism.  When one-third of the population is eldery, they will have huge sway over government budgets and agendas.  This will in turn take money away from education and government programs to help the young.  Young taxpayers will no longer be working for their own future but instead paying to support their elders' pentions.  This could pose a serious handicap on further innovation on all levels, from the arts, to public administration, to technology.  

So I guess I only have more questions and even fewer answers for this difficult topic for Japan and many other developped countries.  So a net population decline is not necessarily bad for the planet, but there will still be serious political and cultural ramifications in societies full of old people.  At the same time, measures should be taken to allow for women and older people to work and for the underemployed to find more meaningful and profitable employment.  Measues will also need to be taken to make sure that technological advances allow for more ecological development and be redistributed to benefit more people rather than just a select few.   A difficult task indeed.

So even if the population of Japan ages and declines and the gross economic output declines, structural and technological changes can be made to increase production efficiency, eco-friendliness and to help maintain the high standard of living. 

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Japan’s Declining Birthrate and Aging Population – Commentary and Proposals

Various media have recently reported on the 2005 fertility statistics in Japan. According to the BBC, Japan's fertility rate in 2005 dropped to an average of 1.25 children per woman, down from 1.29 in 2004 and the lowest on record since recordkeeping began in 1947. This makes Japan's birthrate one of the lowest in the world. The average birthrate in developped countries is 1.6 children per woman, while the rate needed to prevent population decline is 2.1.

According to demographers and various politicians, this declining birthrate is will lead to labor shortages, a reduced tax base, and strain on the pension system. The declining birthrate is coupled with an aging society that will further strain the pension system, as the post-War baby boomers reach retirement age in the coming years. Also, Japan has one of the longest life expectancies in the world. But this blessing will also become a curse, when older people, to put it blunty, just won't die; thus becoming economic "liabilities" to the system. According to something I saw on the TV news, the proportion of people over 65 in Japan is already around 20 percent and this percentage is forecasted to reach a peak of about a third of the population in the next 15 years or so.

Returning to the subject of declining birthrates, I quote again from the BBC:

Japan's government last year began a five-year project to lift the rate, building more day-care centres and encouraging men's paternity leave.

But many Japanese women say it is social attitudes, rather than policies, which put them off getting married or having children.

Men are still expected to spend long hours at the office and little time at home, while there is pressure on women to give up work when they have children.

I agree with the sentiment of many Japanese women that 中途半端 (half-arsed) measures such as increasing day care centers or "encouraging" men to take paternity leave is not going to work. Many attitudes are deeply engrained in Japanese working culture. There is plenty of unpaid and unreported overtime, and Japanese workers seldom take all of their legally mandated holiday time. Meanwhile, many misogynistic right-wing political figures point their fingers at women – demanding that they return to their "rightful place": in the kitchen and in stirrups, pushing out babies.

No wonder Japanese women are putting off marriage and childbirth. With the societal demands and expectations placed upon Japanese wives, why would modern, educated women give up their independence by marrying? This is a pretty widespread phenomenon. Even Princess Sayako of the Japanese Imperial Family put off marriage until the age of 36.

Furthermore, many women who do marry are expected to quit their jobs after the wedding and to devote their time to be wives and mothers. This is part of corporate culture and very hard to change through legislation. When women do choose to reenter the work place after marriage and children, oftentimes the only jobs that are available to them are low-paying part-time jobs. So the paranoid prediction of a labor shortage due to low birthrates may not be completely true since many qualified women are simply under-employed or simply choosing not to work.

A Sign of Change

I found this article on ZNET.org about the role of co-ops in contemporary Japan. They are a relatively small but growing movement that is changing the labor market in Japan. Perhaps these kind of labor market changes will allow women to both be mothers and to work outside of their homes.

The article also points out another barrier that is hindering women from becoming full participants in the labor market, the dreaded "Milion Yen Wall":

Japan’s income tax law hits a household’s “secondary income” astonishingly hard above a quite low maximum in the middle-income brackets, a phenomenon infamous as the “hyaku-man-en kabe (百万円壁),” the “Million Yen Wall.”

Government policies designed to bolster “a breadwinner plus housewife” family system reinforce the particular ways Japan’s labor market fails women.
A wife who earns in excess of one million yen loses her dependent status and has to pay her own social security taxes and health insurance. Here, one million yen arbitrarily though not unrealistically equals ten thousand US dollars.
Effectively, the first $10,000 a dependent wife earns is tax exempt; but the next $7000 to $10,000 is a dead loss, all going to taxes of one kind or another. At the low hourly wages typical of jobs available to them, middle-aged women must expect to work 20 to 25 hours per week to earn $10,000 annually.

Taboo Topic: Immigration

There seems to be a deafening silence in public debate on the subject of immigration. Like all other economically developped countries, Japan also has its share of economic migrants, mostly from other parts of Asia and South America who take up mostly lower-paying industrial jobs. However, their numbers in Japan are proportionally far few than other economically developped and post-colonial countries.

One can argue on ethical grounds that Japan, a former colonial and imperialist country that has acheived economic sucess, should allow people from countries that it has formerly colonized and plundered to have a share of that success, as a way of making up for past wrongs. Of course, foreign aid and foreign investments are part of that package, but allowing immigrants from formerly conquered countries to come work and settle in Japan should also be part of the process of historical reconciliation.

Let me pause while some of you laugh out loud. Let's just look at Japan's track record when it comes to dealing with it's imperialist past: First, their is the ongoing textbook controversies about school textbooks that down play Japanese aggression and call the Rape of Nanjin an "incident" ("oops! some Chinese civilians might of tripped and fallen on some Japanese bayonets. Sumimasen deshita") Also, Japanese-Koreans, many who were forcibly brought to Japan as laborers during the colonial period were stripped of their Japanese citizenship after WWII. Many of their descendants continue to live in Japan with the legal status of foreigner, even 3 or 4 generations later.

Furthermore, it has taken the Comfort Women (慰安婦) who were forced into sexual acts with members of the Japanese Imperial Army DECADES, to get any sort of recognition whatsoever. Also, the Yasukuni Shrine registers continue to hold the names of Korean and Taiwanese soldiers who died fighting for the Japanese Imperical Army. Despite the objections and lawsuits filed by those soldiers families, the government and the courts have always supported the Shrine, so the names remain. (OK, I have lots more about the whole Yasukuni Shrine issue, but I'll save that for another rant)

So Japan, why not let in some more people from Asia immigrate to Japan? They will add to your tax base, keep the population vibrant and young, and smooth over some of those thorny PR issues you have with your neighbors.

Another Proposal

Here's another way Japan can keep their population young and vibrant. Let previous JET participants stay and settle in Japan after their 1 to 5 year stints on the programme.

I realize that not all JETs ever have the intention of staying in Japan, but those who want to stay should perhaps be given support of some kind from the government to smooth the transition from JET to other employment in Japan. JET participants would make great candidates for permanent immigration. They are already pre-screened by Japanese consulates and embassies abroad. They all have university degrees and are young, mostly in their 20s and early 30s. Many have good Japanese skills and real experience working and living in Japan for 1-5 years. Many have formed close connections with their communities, many of which are in more rural areas that could use more young people anyway. Many have entered into serious relationships with Japanese nationals.

The Japanese government could offer priority to former JET participants when applying for work or immigration visas for Japan. They could also help them with more information about how to stay in Japan after JET. I am sure that many JET participants have more to offer than just teaching English or translating. JETs bring their youthfulness and creativity to their communities. Many have creative and entrepreneurial spirits that could help brighten up and economically revitalize more marginalized regions of the country.

And with the many JET/Japanese couples being formed, they can help out the gene pool and the baby-making enterprise as well.